Volume 6 Issue 4


Volume 6 Issue 4

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Lobanovsky Yu.I.

General classifier of system problems - I: Analysis, synthesis, validation and verification 24

The upper level of a general classifier of system problems was constructed on the basis of system principles. This classifier was considered as an object of system engineering, and in accordance with its modern principles, the construction was started with the creation of the classifier functional structure. Further, requirements for this structure were validated. At the same time, as a result of the system problems analysis, taking into account the similarity of functional structures at the system level and at the level of its environ, six elements of its upper level were identified. Then the logical architecture of the classifier was constructed, and preliminary verification of the requirements was carried out. It was shown that the proposed structure of the general classifier of problems with one exception coincides with the structure of 5 causes of ecological disasters described in the book by J. Diamond "Collapse", if one replaces his ecological terminology by a system-wide one. The exception is one structural element of the general classifier of problems, which was not revealed in the empirical analysis of both system and ecological problems. Thus, the system-engineering approach in constructing the classifier allowed to create a more complete and adequate structure than a simple empirical examination of relevant data array. Classification of system problems helps to better understand the reasons why complex systems are not able to perform the tasks assigned to them. Therefore, it should be expected that the use of this classifier by system engineers will allow avoiding in the future those mistakes that led to failures in the past in the construction and/or development of complex systems.

Keywords: problem, classification, system engineering, requirements, validation, verification.


Lobanovsky Yu.I.

General classifier of system problems - II: Extended verification 13

The upper level of a general classifier of system problems was verified in this work. We examined 60 well-known technical projects, natural and social processes that ended in failure – crashes, accidents and disasters. These examples were taken from papers (where 23 "famous failures" are cited), which describe the numerous ecological collapses that occurred with different human communities, and the remaining examples were taken almost randomly from an endless list of failures known in history, so that each of 6 sections of the classifier under consideration had 10 examples.

Keywords: problem, classification, system engineering, requirements, validation, verification.



Manko S.V.,
Shestakov E.I.

Automatic synthesis of gait scenarios for reconfigurable mechatronic modular robots in the modification of the walking platform

Reconfigurable mechatronic modular robots capable of adapting their structure depending on the specifics of the tasks performed and the environmental conditions are of great interest for a wide range of different applications. One of the key issues in controlling the movement of robots of this type is the need to use original algorithms for each of the possible configurations. The variety of configurations is determined by the structure of mechatronic modules, their number and the selected connection option. Some typical configurations of mechatronic modular robots allow the development of motion control algorithms invariant with respect to the number of modules in the kinematic structure. However, a promising approach to solving the problem is generally associated with the development of self-learning methods and tools for the automated synthesis of motion control algorithms of a multi-link mechatronic modular robot in case of chosen configuration. This article discusses the results of research on the use of self-organized finite-state machines for solving the problem of automatic synthesis of scenarios for the gait of reconfigurable mechatronic-modular robots in the modification of the walking platform. The results of model experiments confirming the efficiency and effectiveness of the developed algorithms are presented.

Keywords: reconfigurable modular robots, self-learning, intelligent control systems, finitestate machine.



Isakov V.N.,
Timoshenko P.I.

Local interpolation and approximation in tasks of heuristic synthesis of digital filter 35

The article has an overview character with elements of generalization, but at the same time it includes information brought to the level of immediate practical implementation. Approaches to heuristic and functional synthesis of digital filters based on local interpolation and approximation are considered. Digital differentiators based on local polynomial interpolation, digital integrators based on local polynomial and spline interpolation and digital filters with a U-shaped amplitude-frequency characteristic based on polynomial OLS approximation are obtained. The obtained results can be used in practice according to their functional purpose, taking into account the recommendations mentioned. The idea of numerical differentiation based on interpolation is not new, but the deep connection between this approach and digital filtering is not often reflected in literature due to the fact that this concept is limited to numerical differentiation based on finite differences. The gap is filled in this work. Numerical integration is usually considered on the basis of stepwise or piecewise linear or piecewise parabolic interpolation (method of rectangles, trapezoids, Simpson). However, regardless of the choice of the interpolation method, the digital integrator has a certain generalized structure, and approaches to numerical integration can be based on more effective methods of interpolation, which is shown in the article. The OLS filters (Savitzky-Golay) are described in the literature. However, the steps for their practical implementation are clearly insufficient. Traditionally the general description of filters does not develop further 4th degree of the approximating polynomial and is often limited to the moving average filters. The frequency properties of the filters are also not fully described. In this work the description of the OLS filters obtained at the degree of the approximating polynomial 0-8 was given, their frequency properties were studied, and sufficient information was given to obtain digital filters based on them with a U-shaped amplitude-frequency characteristic without pulsations in the passband. Thus, the field of filters application is extended beyond the OLS smoothing.

Keywords: local interpolation, smoothing approximation, numerical differentiation, numerical integration, digital filter, least squares method, Savitzky-Golay filter.



Gecha V.Ya.,
Zhilenev M.Yu.,
Fyodorov V.B.,
Khrychev D.A.,
Khudak Yu.I.,
Shatina A.V.

The image speed during the optical - electronic surfacing the planet 34

In this paper, a formula is obtained for calculating the velocity of an image in the plane of image fixation during a space survey of the planet's surface with the aid of an on-board optoelectronic device. The ideal task is considered: the Earth is modeled by an absolutely rigid homogeneous ball, rotating uniformly around the fixed axis, and the satellite's center of mass describes a fixed Keplerian orbit, in one of the focal points of which the center of the Earth is located. The axis of sight has a direction in the nadir, i.e. passes through the center of the Earth. The main focus of the "cosmic camera" is in the center of mass of the satellite P, and the plane of fixation of the images is perpendicular to the viewing axis and is located at the focal distance d behind the point P. The obtained analytical formula for calculating the velocity field of motion of image points in the model problem under consideration when shooting in a nadir is of fundamental importance for solving the inverse problem when reconstructing a "blurred" image. The formula is important for calculating and optimizing the parameters of the compensators used in practice to "smear" the image. In addition, the resulting formula is useful for verifying numerical algorithms that model the "smear" effect. It can be used in planning work programs for remote sensing of the Earth.

Keywords: satellite, Keplerian orbit, speed of image movement, nadir, spacecraft, remote sensing of the Earth.


Pastushkov A.A.,
Batovrin V.K.

Selection of solutions for designing open systems based on analysis of variants with random weights 25

A new one-parameter approach to the selection of optimal solutions for the design of complex systems is proposed. The approach is based on the analysis of a tree of variants with random weights (here weight is a certain non-negative quantity: for example, cost, mass, energy consumption, etc.). At the root of the method suggested in the work lies the fact that the tree of variants forms a matroid, on which the optimal solution can be found using the "greedy" algorithm. The basis of the method proposed in the paper is the fact that in case of non-negative values of the mathematical expectation and variance of the elements of the variants tree they can be considered as components of vectors belonging to a semiring. It is shown that the appropriate definition of the operations of addition and multiplication makes it possible to define a function on the semiring. This function satisfies the norm axioms of vectors and coincides in structure with the expression for the upper bound of the confidence interval. After determining the weight of the tree elements through the introduced norm function the upper bound of the confidence interval of the variant tree with the minimum weight was found. The approach suggested in the work can be used at various stages of designing complex systems, including, among other things, the development of system profiles, and makes it possible to increase the validity of the decisions made.

Keywords: complex system, structure optimization, "greedy" algorithm, matroid, ring, semiring, matrix algebras over semirings.


Sadovnikova E.V.,
Shatina A.V.

Evolution of the rotational motion of a satellite with flexible viscoelastic rods on the elliptic orbit 16

The rotational motion of an artificial satellite in the central Newtonian force field is investigated. The satellite is modeled as a symmetric solid with rigid viscoelastic rods rigidly attached along the symmetry axis and with a spherical inertia tensor. A limited statement of the problem is considered: the center of mass of the satellite moves along a given Keplerian elliptic orbit. As is known, some artificial Earth satellites (AES) have whip radio antennas for a length of hundreds of meters. The problem considered in this paper is a model for studying the rotational motion of this type of satellites. To solve this problem, the method of separation of motions and averaging is used for mechanical systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom. We obtain an averaged system of differential equations in the Andoyer variables, which describes the evolution of the satellite's rotational motion. Partial solutions of the evolutionary system of the equations are found. For each such class of solutions phase portraits are built. It is shown that in the process of dissipative evolution caused by energy dissipation in rods, the angle between the vector of the angular momentum of the satellite's rotational motion and the normal to the orbital plane decreases to zero. Besides, new classes of stationary motions are found: the axis of symmetry of the satellite makes an arbitrary angle with the normal to the orbit plane, or the module of the angular velocity of the satellite rotation does not depend on the orbital angular velocity of the radius vector of its center of mass.

Keywords: satellite, Kepler elliptic orbit, Andoyer variables, averaging method, dissipative evolution of motion.



Rogova V.A.

Problem of staffing for development of high technologies in Russia in the mirror of the Global innovation index 68

The article defines the role and the place of high technologies at the current stage of social development, descripts the role and the value of innovation for technological improvement of national economy, justifies relationship between level and intensity of innovative activity and rate of high technologies development. The analysis of such interrelation gives the chance of use the innovation index as indicator of development of high technologies. This conclusion is proved by intrinsic interpretation of the "high technologies" term, which is characterized by innovations. Basing on the Global Innovation Index, which is a study aimed at understanding economic process, author analyses positions held by Russia within general indicator, which is now regarded as indicator of technological level of national economy and level of economic development in general. Consideration of the essence of high technologies and drivers for technology development makes it possible to define two crucial factors: expenditure on R&D and the quality of human resources (mostly engineers, technicians and researchers). Research findings vividly illustrate problems of staffing such as the lack of young professionals in science and engineering, relatively poor performance of their intellectual activity, low efficiency of innovation that impede technological upgrading of economy.

Keywords: high technologies, innovation, innovation activity, resources of innovation, engineering personnel, engineering education.